Named after the Apostle Andrew, patron saint of Russia, Scotland and patron of the Patriarch of Constantinople. The top bar symbolizes the placard on which was written the charge against Jesus. The middle bar is where the hands were nailed. There are several explanations for the distinctive lower bar. Some say that it calls to mind the "X" shaped cross that Andrew was crucified on. Others say that the saint preached with a three bar cross, using the lower bar to illustrate that "those on the right side of Christ will go up to heaven, those on His left will descent into hell". Still others say that the slanted bar represents what was originally a support device on crosses of crucifixion, put there to increase the discomfort of the victim; the slant developed to suggest an isometric view of it, and was eventually lowered to suggest a footrest.